Slavery in New Netherland

Berlin, Ira. "From Creole to African: Atlantic Creoles and the Origins of African American Society in Mainland North America." The William and Mary Quarterly 53, no. 2 (1996): 251-88.

Berlin, Ira, and Leslie M. Harris. Slavery in New York. New York: New Press, Distributed by W.W. Norton, 2005.

Boogaart, Ernst van den. "The Servant Migration to New Netherland, 1624-1664." In Colonialism and Migration; Indentured Labour Before and After Slavery, edited by P.C. Emmer, 55-81. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1986.

Christoph, Peter R. "The Freedman of New Amsterdam." In A Beautiful and Fruitful Place, edited by Nancy Anne McClure Zeller, 157-70. New York: The New Netherland Project, 1991.

Davis, Thomas J. "These Enemies of Their Own Household: Slaves in 18th Century New York." In A Beautiful and Fruitful Place, edited by Nancy McClure Zeller, 171-82. Albany: The New Netherland Project, 1991.

Dewulf, Jeroen. "Emulating a Portuguese Model: The Slave Policy of the West India Company and the Dutch Reformed Church in Dutch Brail (1630-1654) and New Netherland (1614-1664) in Comparative Perspective." Journal of Early American History 4 (2014): 3-36.

Dewulf, Jeroen. "Pinkster: An Atlantic Creole Festival in a Dutch-American Context." Journal of American Folklore, Vol. 126, Nr. 501: 245-271.

Goodfriend, Joyce. "Slavery in Colonial New York." Urban History 35, no. 3 (2008): 485-96.

------. Before the Melting Pot: Society and Culture in Colonial New York City, 1664-1730. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992.

------. "Black Families in New Netherland." In A Beautiful and Fruitful Place, edited by Nancy McClure Zeller, 147-56. Albany: The New Netherland Project, 1991.

Harris, Leslie M. In The Shadow of Slavery: African Americans in New York City, 1626-1863. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2003.

Hansen, Joyce and Gary McGowan. Breaking Ground, Breaking Silence: The Story of New York's African Burial Ground. New York: Henry Holt Co. (NYR),1998.

Heywood, Linda M., and John K. Thornton. Central Africans, Atlantic Creoles, and the Foundation of the Americas, 1585-1660. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Heywood, Linda and John K. Thornton. "Intercultural Relations Between Europeans and Blacks in New Netherland." In Four Centuries of Dutch-American Relations: 1609-2009, edited by Cornelis A. van Minnen Hans Krabbendam, Giles Scott-Smith. Albany: SUNY Press, 2009.

Hodges, Graham Russell. Root & Branch: African Americans in New York & East Jersey. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1999.

Lepore, Jill. New York Burning: Liberty, Slavery, and Conspiracy in Eighteenth-Century Manhattan. New York: Vintage books, 2005.

Maika, Dennis J. "Encounters: Slavery and the Philipse Family: 1680-1751." In Dutch New York: The Roots of Hudson Valley Culture. Edited by Roger Panetta. New York: Fordham University Press, 2009.

Medford, Edna Greene, ed. Historical Perspectives of the African Burial Ground: New York Blacks and the Diaspora. Vol. 3, The New York Burial Ground: Unearthing the African Presence in Colonial New York. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 2009.

Romney, Susanah Shaw. New Netherland Connections: Intimate Networks and Atlantic Ties in Seventeenth-Century America. Charlotte: Omohundro Institute/UNC Press, 2014.

Washington, Margaret. Sojourner Truth's America. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2009.

White, Shane. Somewhat More Independent: The End of Slavery in New York City, 1770-1810. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1991.

------. "Pinkster: Afro-Dutch Syncretization in New York City and the Hudson Valley." The Journal of American Folklore 102, no. 403 (1989): 68-75.

Williams-Myers, Albert James. "Pinkster Carnival: Africanisms in the Hudson River Valley." Afro-Americans in New York Life and History 9 (1985): 7-17.

Williams, James Homer. "Dutch Attitudes Towards Indians, Africans, and Other Europeans in New Netherland, 1624-1664." In Connecting Cultures: The Netherlands in Five Centuries of Transatlantic Exchange, edited by Rosemarijn Hoefte and Johanna Kardux. Amsterdam: VU University Press, 1994.

About the New Netherland Institute

For over three decades, NNI has helped cast light on America's Dutch roots. In 2010, it partnered with the New York State Office of Cultural Education to establish the New Netherland Research Center, with matching funds from the State of the Netherlands. NNI is registered as a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization. Contributions are tax-deductible to the extent permitted by law. More

The New Netherland Research Center

Housed in the New York State Library, the NNRC offers students, educators, scholars and researchers a vast collection of early documents and reference works on America's Dutch era. More


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