[1] The State against Tierke Tenbroeke on habeas corpus of Negro Philip, 17 May 1783, Alexander Papers, Court Papers New Jersey Supreme Court—Criminal Cases, N.B, 1723-1777, Box # 47, New-York Historical Society.

[2] M. Michelle Jarret [Morris] points out that the Pennsylvania Gazette ran several notices for women advertising their services as wet nurses or of families looking for wet nurses. Michelle M. Jarrett, “An Act of Flagrant Rebellion against Nature,” Winterthur Portfolio 30, no. 4 (Winter 1995): 281, 281n12, 282, 282m16.

[3] The State against Tierck Tenbroeck on Habeas Corpus of Negro Philip for Manumission, in Cases Adjudged in the Supreme Court of New-Jersey relative to the Manumission of Negroes: And Others Holden in Bondage (Burlington, NJ: Printed for The New-Jersey Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery by Isaac Neal, 1794), 13. Link

About the New Netherland Institute

For over three decades, NNI has helped cast light on America's Dutch roots. In 2010, it partnered with the New York State Office of Cultural Education to establish the New Netherland Research Center, with matching funds from the State of the Netherlands. NNI is registered as a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization. Contributions are tax-deductible to the extent permitted by law. More

The New Netherland Research Center

Housed in the New York State Library, the NNRC offers students, educators, scholars and researchers a vast collection of early documents and reference works on America's Dutch era. More


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